|Source||Ad Herennium 4.34.45 ("translatio"); Quintilian 8.6.4-18; Susenbrotus (1540) 7 ("metaphor," "translatio"); Sherry (1550) 40 ("metaphora," "translatio," "translacion"); Fraunce (1588) 1.7; Putt. (1589) 189 ("metaphora," "figure of transsporte"); Day 1599 77 ("metaphora"); Hoskins 1599 8 ("metaphor," "translation"); Melanchthon (1531);Silva Rhetoricae (http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Silva.htm); Ad Herennium (343-345); Garrett Epp (1994) ("translatio," "metaphor"); JG Smith (1665) ("metaphora"); Gibbons (1767) 22 ("metaphor"); Hart (1874) 154-159; Vinsauf (1967) ("metaphor (translatio)"); Macbeth (1876); Holmes (1806) ("metaphor," "metaphora"); De Mille (1882); Bain (1867) 30 ("metaphor"); Hill (1883); Waddy (1889); Demetrius (1902) 139; Jamieson (1844) 143; Blount (1653) 1; Raub (1888) 194; Blackwall (1718); Bullinger (1898) ("metaphor; or, representation"); Johnson (1903) ("metaphor"); Norwood (1742) ("a metaphor"); Kellog (1880) ("the metaphor"); Vickers (1989) ("metaphor")|
|Synonyms||metaphora, translatio, translation, figure of transport, representation, transference|
|Etymology||from meta “beyond, over” and pherein “to carry”|
1. A comparison made by referring to one thing as another. (Silva Rhetoricae)
2. Metaphor occurs when a word applying to one thing is transferred to another, because the
3. Application of a word in a transferred sense from one thing to another that is in some way similar or analogous. (This most elaborate of tropes is too well known and too varied to be usefully illustrated here.) (Garrett Epp)
4. Translation: it is a Translation of words from one species to another: a trope when we expresse our selves by a word of like signification unto that which we mean, &c.; Metaphora, gr., Translatio, translation, or a removing over; derived from [metapherò] transfero, to translate. (Note in marg: Esteum nomen aut verbum ex prop io loco, in m transfertur, in quo aut proprium d...) It is the artificial Translation of a word, from the proper signification, to another not proper, but yet nigh and alike: Or it is a Translation of words from one species to another: Or the friendly borrowing of a word to expresse a thing with more light and better note, though not so directly and properly as the natural name of the things meant would signifie. It is a Trope when we expresse our selves by a word of a like signification to that which we mean: or when the property of one thing is translated to another: as, Gen. 6.6. God is said to repent; where the property of man is translated to the omnipotent and omniscient God. A Metaphor is pleasant, for that is enriches our knowledge with two things at once, with the Truth and a similitude. Two necessary Rules to be observed, viz.
1. A Metaphor ought not to be so far fetcht, as that the similitude may not easily appear.
2. It ought to be drawn from the noblest things, as the Poets do, that choose rather to say, rosie-fingerd, then red-finger'd Aurora; as appears by the first English Example, where 'tis thought unfit to stoop to any Metaphor lower then the Heaven. (JG Smith)
5. "A metaphor is a trope, by which a word is removed from its proper signification into another meaning upon account of comparison." (Gibbons)
6. Metaphor is a figure founded upon the resemblance which
7. ... [T]he artistic transposition of words. If an observation is to be made about man, I turn to an object which clearly resembles man (in the quality or state of being I wish to attribute to him). When I see what that object's proper vesture is, in the aspect similar to man's, I borrow it, and fashion for myself a new garment in place of the old. (Vinsauf)
8. In metaphor, the subject of which the metaphorical affirmation is made is always taken literally; the metaphor lies wholly in the copula or verb, which asserts something of the subject that is not literally proper to the nature of that subject:
9. A Metaphor, in place of proper words, Resemblance puts; and dress to speech affords. (Holmes)
10. 100. METAPHOR.
11. "a comparison implied in the language used… this figure is in frequent use. By dispensing with the phrases of comparison--like, as, &c.--it has the advantages of being brief and of not disturbing the structure of the comparison. Like similitudes generally, metaphors may (1) aid the understanding, (2) deepen the impression on the feelings, and (3) give an agreeable surprise." (Bain)
12. 1. Nature of Metaphor.
13. Metaphor is a figure of speech founded upon resemblance. It is often called an abridged simile. IT agrees with the simile in being founded upon resemblance, but differs from it in structure. In the simile one object is said to resemble another; and, generally, some sign of comparison (as, like, etc.) stands between them. In the metapor, an object is spoken of as if it were another, and no sign of comparison is used. (Waddy)
14. "a figure founded entirely on the resemblance which one subject bears to another. ...The comparison is only insinuated, not expressed; the one object is supposed to be so like the other, that without formally drawing the comparison, the name of the one may be put in the place of the name of the other." (Jamieson)
15. "A METAPHOR or Translation is the friendly and neighbourly borrowing of a word, to express a thing with more light and better note, though not so directly and properly as the naturall name of the thing meant, would signifie." (Blount)
16. "Metaphor is an implied comparison. A metaphor may be regarded as an abridged simile. The chief difference between metaphor and simile lies in the form of statement. ...In the metaphor, terms of comparison are omitted. ...Metaphor aids the memory by multiplying meanings without multiplying words. ...Metaphor aids the understanding. ...Metaphor impresses the feelings. Metaphor secures both brevity and smoothness." (Raub)
17. Metaphor is a Trope by which we put a strange Word for a proper Word, by reason of its Resemblance and Relation to it. (...) A Metaphor is a Simile or Comparison intended to enforce and illustrate the Thing we speak of, without the Signs or Form of Comparison. (...) So in short, a Metaphor is a stricter or closer Comparison; and a Comparison a looser and less-compact Metaphor. (Blackwall)
18. A Declaration that one Thing is (or represents) another; or, Comparison by Representation... Hence, while the Simile gently states that one thing is like or resembles another, the Metaphor boldly and warmly declares that one thing IS the other... The Metaphor is, therefore, not so true to fact as the Simile, but is much truer to feeling. (Bullinger, 729)
19. Met'aphor.—This figure consists in suggesting a likeness between two things by asserting one to be identical with the other, or calling it by the name of the other... One of the most necessary duties of the rhetorician is to warn his pupils against mixed metaphors. Many of these might be cited from good writers... A metaphor should not only be pure (unmixed), but should present a conceivable picture, not repulsive to good taste or common sense... If the mind conceives that picture at all, it must perforce view the Creator in the character of a convict wearing a ball and chain, to say nothing of an entanglement that would stop the movements of the
20. A METAPHOR. A Metaphor is an artificial translation of a word, from the proper signification of it to another, because there is some proportion between the similitude, and the very thing signified. This kind of Trope is extremely pleasant, and not without excellent use; for it enriches our mind with two ideas at the very same time, with the
21. A metaphor is a figure of speech in which, assuming the likeness between two things, we apply to one of them the term which denotes the other. This figure is encountered everywhere in speech. In almost every sentence that drops from the pen or tongue, there are words whose metaphorical significance has so faded out of them that we fail to detect it. Richter has called language "a dictionary of faded metaphors." (Kellog, 115-6)
22. Metaphor (or translatio), when a word is transferred from one thing to another, for illumination and for emotional emphasis. (Vickers 496)
1. No man is an island —John Donne
2. " This insurrection awoke Italy with sudden terror " (Ad Herennium)
2. " The recent arrival of an army suddenly
2. "Whose mother delights in daily marriages " (Ad Herennium)
2. " No one's grief or disaster could have appeased this creature's enmities and glutted his horrible cruelty" (Ad Herennium)
2. " He boasts that he was of great help because, when we were in difficulties, he lightly breathed a favouring breath " (Ad Herennium)
5. "...he is a lion." (Gibbons)
5. "Thus our blessed Lord is called a vine, a lamb, a lion, &c. Thus men, according to their different dispositions, are styled wolves, sheep, dogs, serpents, &c." (Gibbons)
4. The skie of your vertue overcast with sorrow.
You are the most excellent star that shines in the bright Element of beauty.
The wounds of grief.---flowers of Oratory.
Drops of dew are pearls.
Flowers in medows are stars.
The murmuring of the waters is musick.
To divorce the fair marriage of the head and body; where besides the cutting off of the head, we understand the conjunction of the head and body to resemble marriage.
To keep love close prisoner; which is to conceal love.
There came through Cheapside a whole fleet of Coaches; for a great number. (JG Smith)
6. "He is the pillar of the state." (Hart)
6. "Full many a glorious morning I have seen, Flatter the mountain-top with sovran eye, Kissing with golden face the meadows green, Gilding pale streams with heavenly alchemy." -Shakespeare (Hart)
6. "The white light of truth, in trancersing the many-sided transparent soul of the post, is refracted into iris-hued poetry." -Herbert Spencer (Hart)
6. "The vessel was now full, and this last drop made the waters bitnerness overflow." -Bolingbroke (Hart)
6. "In the shipwreck of the state, trifles float and are preserved; while everything solid and valuable sinks to the bottom, and is lost forever." - Junius (Hart)
6. "In peace, thou art the gale of spring; in war, the mountain storm." -Ossian (Hart)
6. "She was covered with the light of beauty; but her heart was the bearer of the pride." -Ossian (Hart)
7. For example, taking the words in their literal sense, gold is said to yellow; milk, white; a rose, very red; honey, sweet-flowing; flames, glowing; snow, white. Say therefore: snowy teeth, flaming lips, honied taste, rosy countenance, milky brow, golden hair. These word-pairs are well suited to each other: teeth, snow; lips, flames; taste, honey; countenance, rose; brow, milk; hair, gold. (Vinsauf)
8. "A scolding woman's tongue is the only edge-tool that grows sharper by constant use." - Washington Irving (Macbeth)
9. A Tide (Excess) of Passion. Breath on (favour) my Enterprizes. The golden (pure, untainted) Age. (Holmes)
10. 1. Where one living thing is put for another:
10. 2. Where one inanimate thing is put for another:
10. 3. Where inanimate things are put for things having life:
10. 4. Where inanimate things are represented as endowed with life. This is identical with personification in its lower grades (see Personification).
11. "he bridles his anger; he was a lion in combat; the fact is clear." (Bain)
12. Thus Byron so vividly realized the resemblance between the swaying of a suspended ball and man's oscillation between joy and sorrow, as to identify the two in his thought in the beautiful line which he says of man,
13. Thus: "Man is as the flower of the field" is a simile. "Man is a flower of the field" expresses the same thought by a metaphor. (Waddy)
14. "From 'neath his wings he pours
14. "When of some great minister it is said, 'that he upholds the state, like a pillar, which supports the weight of a whole edifice,' a comparison is made; but when it is said of such a minister, 'that he is the pillar of the state,' it is now become a metaphor." (Jamieson)
15. "As to say, Drops of Dew are Pearls; Flowers n Meadows are Starres, and the murmuring of waters, Musick; that little Birds are Angels of the Forrests; Whales are living Rocks, or Ships with souls; that the Sea is a moving Earth; and foundtain water, liquid Crystall." (Blount)
16. "The stars are night's candles" (Raub)
17. God is a Shield to good Men. (Blackwall)
17. -- who did ever in French Authors see
17. Piety and Virtue in Persons of eminent Place and Dignity are seated to great Advantage, so as to cast a Lustre upon their very Place, and by a strong Reflexion double the Beams of Majesty. - Archbishop Tillotson (Blackwall)
17. Vile is the Vengeance on the Ashes cold;
18. Ps. 23:1. -"The LORD is my Shepherd." Here, we have a Metaphor; and in it a great and blessed truth is set forth by the representation of Jehovah as a Shepherd. It is He who tends his People, and does more for them than any earthly shepherd does for his sheep. All His titles and attributes are so bound up with this care that in this Psalm we have the illustration of all the Jehovah-titles:-
In verse 1. "I shall not want," because He is JEHOVAH-JIREH (Gen. 22:14), and will provide.
In verse 2. "He leadeth me beside the waters of quietness (margin), because He is JEHOVAH-SHALOM (Judges 6:24), and will give peace.
In verse 3. "He restoreth my soul," for He is JEHOVAH-ROPHECHIA (Ex. 15:26), and will graciously heal.
In verse 3. He guides me "in the paths of righteousness," for He is JEHOVAH-TZIDKENU (Jer. 23:6), and is Himself my righteousness, and I am righteous in Him (Jer. 33:16).
In verse 4. In death's dark valley "Thou art with me," for thou art JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH (Ezek. 48:35).
In verse 5. "Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies," for Thou art JEHOVAH-NISSI (Ex. 17:15), my banner, and will fight for me, while feast.
In verse 5. "Thou anointest my head with oil," for Thou art JEHOVAH-MEKADDESCHIEM (Ex. 31:13, etc.), the LORD that sanctifieth me.
In verse 6. "Surely" all these blessings are mine for time and eternity, for His is JEHOVAH-ROHI (Ps. 23:1), Jehovah my Shepherd, pledged to raise me up from the dead, and to preserve and bring me "through" the valley of death into His glorious kingdom (John 6:39) (Bullinger, 731)
19. Thus, when an American orator speaks of the Constitution as "the aegis of our liberties," he uses a metaphor. The aegis, in mythology, was the shield that was given by Zeus to Apollo and Minerva; and the Constitution resembles a shield in that it is a protector. Metaphor is the boldest of all the figures of speech, and the most frequent. In many instances a word has been used in a metaphorical sense so long and so constantly that this appears like a literal sense. Ophelia uses a metaphor when she speaks of Hamlet as "the glass of fashion," and Hamlet himself uses a metaphor when
What though the sun with ardent frown
"Ardent frown" is a metaphor of the milder kind, the kind with which our whole language is strewn. Longfellow, in The Arsenal at Springfield, writes:
Peace!—and no longer from its brazen portals
" War's great organ " is a metaphor.
Ask why the sunlight not forever
in which "weaves rainbows" is a metaphor. Emerson, in his Wood Notes, makes a quick and striking metaphor in the line:
Leave thy peacock wit behind.
To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow
For so the whole round world is every way
Onward, Christian soldiers,
even when they come from the pen of a writer like Sabine Baring-Gould. They are hardly consonant with a Gospel of Peace. William E. Channing, in his lecture on War, begins the peroration with, "Go forth, then, friends of mankind, peaceful soldiers of Christ." "Peaceful soldiers" is a contradiction in terms; and it is doubtful whether Mr. Channing would have committed the solecism were it not for the fact that military expressions have become so common as almost to lose their metaphorical character. (Johnson, 151-154)
20. Deut. 32. 42. I will make my arrows drunk with blood, and my sword shall devour
22. That time of year thou mayst in me behold
|Related Figures||simile, catachresis, allegory, Ornament of Style, personification|
|Notes||From Hart, rules for metaphors: 1. The metaphorical and the literal should not be mixed in the same sentence. 2. Two different metaphors should not be used in the same sentence and in reference to the same subject. 3. Metaphors on the same subject should not be crowded together in rapid succession. 4. Metaphors should not be multiplied to excess. 5. Metaphors should not be carried too far.|
|Last Editor||Daniel Etigson|
|Editorial Notes||added synonyms added source (gibbons), def. & examples (MC)|