|Source||Ad Herennium 4.32.43 ("denominatio"); Quintilian 8.6.23-27; Susenbrotus (1540) 8-9 ("metonymia," "transnominatio"; Wilson (1560) 200 ("Transmutation of a Word"); Fraunce (1588) 1.2-5; Putt. (1589) 191 ("metonimia," "the misnamer"); Day 1599 78 ("metonymia," "transnominatio"); Hoskins 1599 10 ("metonymia"); Silva Rhetoricae (http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Silva.htm); Ad Herennium (335-337); Garrett Epp (1994) ("denominatio," "metonymy"); JG Smith (1665) ("metonymia"); Gibbons (1767) 89 ("metonymy"); Vinsauf ([c. 1215] 1967) ("metonymy (denominatio)"); Macbeth (1876); Holmes (1806) ("metonymy," "metonymia"); Hart (1874) 164; Bain (1867) 42 ("metonymy"); De Mille (1882); Hill (1883); Du Marsais (1730) ("la metonymie"); Waddy (1889); Blount (1653) 4; Raub (1888) 206; Blackwall (1718); Bullinger (1898) ("metonymy; or, change of noun"); Johnson (1903) ("metonymy"); Norwood (1742) ("metonymy"); Kellog (1880) ("the metonymy"); Vickers (1989) ("metonymy")|
|Synonyms||metonimia, hypallage, denominatio, transmutatio, transnominatio, the misnamer, change of noun or name, transmutation of a word, metonymia, metonymie|
|Etymology||from meta, "change" and onoma, "name"|
1. Reference to something or someone by naming one of its attributes; "change of noun or name," "transmutation of a word". (Silva Rhetoricae)
2. Metonymy is the figure which draws from an object closely akin or associated an expression
3. Substitution of the name of a related thing for the thing itself. (Garrett Epp)
4. Transnomination, or change of names: a trope whereby the cause is put for the effect, the subject for the adjunct, or contrarily, &c.; Metonymia, Transnominatio, a change of names, or the putting of one name for another; derived from [metonomazo] transnomino, to change one name for another: or from [Gk.], which in composition signifies change, and [onoma] Aeolice pro [onoma] nomen, a name. A Metonymie is a Trope, or a form of speech whereby the orator or speaker puts one thing for another, which by nature are nigh knit together. This change of name is used principally four waies:
(1.) When the Subject is put for the Accident inherent
(1.) When the sign is put for the thing signified thereby
5. "...a trope, in which one name is put for another, for which it may be allowed to stand by reason of some relation or coherence between them. This change of name is principally used in four ways: (1) When the cause is put for the effect. (2) ...when the effect is put for the cause. (3) ...when the subject is put for the adjunct, that is, for some circumstance or appendage belonging to or depending on the subject. (4) ...when the adjunct is put for the subject." (Gibbons)
6. Consider a statement of this kind: The sick man seeks a physician; the grieving man, solace; the poor man, aid. (Note in marg.:(a) abstract for concrete) Expression attains a fuller flowering in this trope: Illness is in need of a physician; grief is in need of solace; poverty is in need of aid. There is a natural charm in this use of the abstract for the concrete, and so in the change of sick man to sickness, grieving man to grief, poor man to poverty. (Note in marg.:(b) cause for effect) What does fear produce? Pallor. What does anger cause? A flush. ... (Note in marg.: (c) instrument for user) Let the comb's action groom the hair after the head has been washed. Let scissors trim away from the hair whatever is excessive, and let a razor give freshness to the face. ... (Note in marg.: (d) material for object) Again, a statement expressed in the following way adds lustre to style: We have robbed their bodies of steel, their coffers of silver, their fingers of gold. The point here is not that zeugma adorns the words with its own figure of speech, but that when I am about to mention something, I withhold its form completely and mention only the material. ... (Note in marg.: (e) container for content) Instead of the thing contained, name that which contains it, choosing the word judiciously whether it be noun or adjective. (Vinsauf)
7. The class of figures now to be considered is Metonymy: a title that comes from two Greek words, which, with Athenian precision, mean "a change of name or noun." That is, metonymy lies always in a noun, never in an adjective or in a verb. (Macbeth)
8. A Metonymy does new names impose, And things by things by near relation shows. (Holmes)
9. Metonymy means a change of name. This is a figure in which the name of one object is put for some other object, the two being so related that the mention of one naturally suggests the other. (Hart)
10. "a thing is named by some accompaniment that is peculiarly forcible or suggestive. Metonymies have been classified according to the nature of the accompaniment singled out. (1.) The Sign, or Symbol, is used for the thing Signified. These signs and circumstances are usually more striking than the main subject; in many instances, however, all that is sough or gained is variety of expression. (2.) The Instrument for the Agent. (3.) The Container for the thing Contained. (4.) An Effect for the Cause…. (5.) An Author for his works…." (Bain)
11. 130. METONYMY.
2. The sign is used for the thing signified, as, "crown," "sceptre," "throne," etc., for "king:" "red-coats," for "soldiers;" "toga," for "civilians."
3. The container is used for the thing contained; as, "cup," for drink;" a "country," for its "people;" "heaven," for "God."
4. The instrument is put for the agent; as "the sword of the law," for the "magistrate;" "bayonets," for "soldiers."
5, The author is mentioned instead of his works; as-
6. A thing is presented by some quality appropriate to it:
12. 1. Forms of Metonymy.
12 (2) The Sign and the Thing Signified. - By association certain signs and symbols become significant of general notions. (Hill)
12. (3) Container and Thing Contained. - An economy of mental processes, but more especially of time and new words, is often secured by putting the container for the contained.(Hill)
13. Le mot de métonymie signifie transposition
The word « metonymy » signifies transposition or a change of name, one name for another.
14. Metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is put for some other object, the two being so closely related that the mention of one naturally suggests the other. (Waddy)
15. "METONOMIA is an exchange of a name, when one word comes in lieu of another, not for a similitude, but for other naturall affinity and coherence" (Blount)
16. "Metonymy is a figure in which one object is described by the name of another to which it is related. The figure is based on the contiguity, in either time or space, of the two objects of thought. ...the following [forms] are the most important. a. Cause for effect… b. effect for cause… c. the container for the thing contained… d. the sign for the thing signified…." (Raub)
17. Metonymie is a Trope whereby one Name is put for another, which it may properly stand for by reason of the near Relation or mutual Dependence there is between both. (...)
18. The Change of one Noun for another Related Noun... Metonymy is a figure by which one name or noun is used instead of another, to which it stands in a certain relation. The change is in the noun, and only in a verb as connected with the action proceeding from it. The following is the complete outline of the figure now to be treated of:-
19. Meton'ymy.—This figure of rhetoric has been defined as an exchange of names between related things. They may be related as cause and effect, as material and article produced from the material, as subject and attribute, or in other ways. (Johnson, 154)
20. METONYMY. Metonymy, of the cause, when the name of the very person serves to express the act, or operation, proceeding from him: thus,
21. A metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one thing connected to another by some bond not of likeness or unlikeness is taken to denote that other. (Kellog, 127)
22. Metonymy (or transmutatio), the substitution of one name for another, as
1. The pen is mightier than the sword
1, We await word from the crown. (Silva Rhetoricae)
1. I'm told he's gone so far as to giver her a diamond ring (Silva Rhetoricae)
1. The IRS is auditing me? Great. All I need is a couple of suits arriving at my door. (Silve Rhetoricae)
2. "Not so quickly did the Lances get possession of Greece, nor was the Transalpine Pike so easily driven from Italy " (Ad Herennium)
2. " Mars forced you to do that " (Ad Herennium)
2. " Italy cannot be vanquished in warfare nor
3. ... doublet and hose ought to show itself courageous to petticoat. (AYL 2.4 qtd. in Garrett Epp)
5. (1) "So we bid a person to read Cicero, that is, Cicero's works." (Gibbons)
5. (2) "Death is called pale, because it makes the countenance pale." (Gibbons)
5. (3) "'He has a good heart,' that is, he has courage, which is supposed to reside in the heart." (Gibbons)
5. (4) "'No age shall be silent in thy praise,' that is, men in no age shall be silent in thy praise." (Gibbons)
4. Metonymie of the Efficient:
So Love is usually put for Liberality, the fruit and effect of love.
My blade is right Sebastian, for of Sebastians making.
He learn'd his Arguments of Aristotle, and his eloquence of Tully; (i. e) out of Aristotles and Tullies works. (JG Smith)
4. Metonymie of the Matter:
Thus Seed is put for children, and Earth for man.
They eat the finest wheat, and drink the sweetest grapes; by Wheat is understood bread, and by Grapes wine. (JG Smith)
4. (Metonymy of Instrument)
The sword (being the instrument of slaughter) is put for slaughter.
In like manner the Tongue, for speech; Arms, for war; the hand, for the manuscript, or hand-writing. (JG Smith)
4. Metonymie of the Effect: : Hereby we say, death is pale, 'fear sad, anger hastie, wine bold; by which is signi[...]ed, that death makes pale, &c.
Thus, Love is said to be bountiful, for that it renders one bountiful. (JG Smith)
4. Metonymie of the Subject:
The Purse, for the money therein, &c. (3)The City met the General; for the Citizens, &c.
It is difficult to overcome Italy by war, or Greece by learning; meaning the Italians and Grecians.
We are to war against Spain, (i. e.) against the Spaniards.
Thus an Academy or School is put for learning.
Thus, With me, is usually to be understood at my house.
So we say of some Guardians, They have devoured the Orphans, intimating the orphans patrimony.
The dayes thought is the nights dream. (9)Mat. 26.26, 28. Bread and wine are said to be Christs body and blood; of which they are only but signes. (JG Smith)
4. Metonymie of the Adjunct:
Give room to the Quoise, (i. e.) to the Serjeant.
(4)Thus vertue is put for good men; and justice for a just man.
He hath lived, (i e.) he is dead.
They are set (i. e) at supper.
The sword is drawn, whereby is signified the ensuing slaughter.
He is buried, (i. e.) he is dead.
4. Metonymie of the end: Let your courage enterprize greater experiments (i. e.) dangers. He layes honour upon the altar (i. e.) a sacrifice; for that in the old Law none but such as were Priests unto God were admitted to sacrifice unto him, which was a dignity importing honour. (JG Smith)
4. Metonymie of the form: Thus Art is put for an Artificer; pride for a proud man, and covetousness for a covetous man, and the soul for man. Heare you modesty it self, (i. e.) some one very modest. (JG Smith)
8. The Inventer is taken for the Invented; as, Mars (War) rages. The Author, for his Works; as, read Horace, i.e. his Writings. The Instrument, for the Cause; as, his Tongue (Eloquence) defends him. The Matter, for the Thing made; as, the Steel (Sword) conquers. The Effect, for the Cause; as, cold Death, i.e. Death, which makes cold. The Subject containing, for the Thing contained; as, the Mace (Magistrate) comes.
9. "When the drunkard loves his bottle" (Hart)
9. "He writes a beautiful hand." (Hart)
9. "I am reading Milton." (Hart)
9. "The pen is the great civilizer." (Hart)
9. "Gray hairs should be respected." (Hart)
9. "There is death in the pot." (Hart)
9. "Man shall live by the sweat of his brow." (Hart)
9. "Cold death." (Hart)
9. "Drowsy night." (Hart)
9. "The kettle boils." (Hart)
9. "He keeps a good table." (Hart)
9. "They smote the city." (Hart)
9. "The House was called to order." (Hart)
9. "He smokes his pipe." (Hart)
9. "At the present day, bayonets think." (Hart)
9. "In water the bullet , in peace the ballot rules." (Hart)
9. "The pen is mightier than the sword." (Hart)
10. "(1.) As the crown or sceptre for royalty; the mitre, the lawn, the altar, the baton, the silk-gown, the purple, the ermine, the ballot-box. Red tape is the routine of office. Peace is signified by sheathing the sword, shutting the temple of Janus. (2.) Cowley says of Cromwell, 'he set up Parliaments by the stroke of his pen, and scattered them with the breath of his mouth,' the intention being to substitute for the hidden operations of the mind, some outward and expressive action. (3.) 'They smote the city.' 'Ye devour widows' houses.' So we say familiarly, the kettle boils. The bottle is a powerful figure for intoxicating drink. 'He keeps a good table.' 'He drank the cup.' (4.) as, the shade for trees. (5.) 'they have Moses and the prophets;' 'a copy of Milton.'" (Bain)
12. (2) Thus "crown," "scepter," and "purple," are indicative of sovereignty, because long associated with it as its external concomitants and representative symbols. (Hill)
12. (3) Thus we speak of the "table," meaning the eatables on it; of the "house," meaning its occupants; of the "camp," meaning its tents and equipage. (Hill)
13(a). (I) la cause pour l' efet: Les paďens regardoient Cérčs come la
13(a). (I) Cause for effect: ... The pagans regarded Ceres as the goddess who caused the wheat to come out of the ground, and who taught men how to make bread: they believed Bacchus was the god who found the use of wine; and so they gave to wheat the name of Ceres, and to wine the name of Bacchus. (English translation, Abbott)
13(b). (Ii) l' efet pour la cause ... Les počtes disent la pâle mort, les pâles
13(b). (ii) Effect for Cause: ... The poets say "the pale of death," "the palour of illness," death and sickness make one pale. (English translation, Abbott)
13(c). (Iii) le contenant pour le contenu: come quand on dit, il aime la bouteille, c'est-ŕ-dire, il aime le vin. (Du Marsais)
13(c). (iii) The container for the contained: as when we say, “he likes the bottle,” that means “ he likes wine.” (English translation, Abbott)
13(d). (Iv) le nom du lieu, oů une chose se fait, se prend pour la chose męme: ... c' est une Perse, c' est-ŕ-dire, une toile peinte qui vient de Perse. (Du Marsais)
13(d). (iv) The name of a place where a thing is made is taken for the thing itself: ... “it's a Persian,” that is to say, a painted canvas which comes from Persia. (English translation, Abbott)
13(e). (V) le signe pour la chose signifiée ... l' épée se prend pour la profession militaire ; la robe pour la magistrature, et pour l' état de ceux qui suivent le barreau. (Du Marsais)
13(e). (v) the sign for the thing signified ... “The sword” is taken for the military profession; “the robe” for the magistrate, and for the state of those who follow the bar. (English translation, Abbott)
13(f). (Vi) le nom abstrait pour le concret. ... l' espérance, se dit souvent pour ce
13(f). (vi) the abstract name for the concrete. ... hopefulness, is often said for that which we hope. ... demand, also is said for the thing which is demanded. (English translation, Abbott)
13(g). (Vii) les parties du corps qui sont regardées come le siège des passions et des sentimens intérieurs, se prènent pour les sentimens mêmes : c' est ainsi qu' on dit il à du coeur ,c'est-à-dire, du courage. ... la langue, qui est le principal organe de la parole, se prend pour la parole.
The parts of the body which are regarded as the seat of passions and interior sentiments, are taken for the sentiments themselves: it is thus that we say "he has heart," that is to say, courage. ... “Tongue” which is the principal organ of speech is taken to mean speech. (Du Marsais [trans. Abbott])
15. "As when the matter is used for that which consists thereof; As I want silver, for rmoney. When the efficient or author is used for the thing made; As my blade is right Sebastian; for, of Sebastians making. The thing containing, for the thing or person contained; as the City met the Generall, for the Citizens. The adjunct, property, or quality, for the subject of it; As, deserts are preferred, for men deserving. Take heed young idleness; for, idle youth. Give room to the quoif, for, the Serjeant; with the like." (Blount)
16. "[a.] We have read Milton and Shakespeare; that is, authors for writings. …[b.] Can gray hairs make folly respectable? That is, gray hairs for age…[c.] The bottle is his worst enemy; that is, pen for literature or the spread of knowledge." (Raub)
17. -- as Jupiter
17. (1) Against bold Turnus the great Trojan Arm,
18. John 3:34. -"For God giveth not the Spirit by measure to Him": i.e., the gifts and operations produced by the Spirit. The Holy Spirit is a person, and cannot, therefore, be measured out or given by measure. The "measure" must consequently mean the measure of His power or gifts bestowed. (Bullinger, 546)
19. Thus, when a railway-builder speaks of "laying the iron" (meaning the rails) he uses the figure of metonymy. When soldiers speak of serving with the colors (meaning the, flag, which is carried with the regiment) they use the same figure. And when one says the well is brackish (meaning the water in the well is brackish), it is still the same figure; as also when one says his ale is "drawn from the wood." This figure may be considered a species of metaphor. It is very common—sometimes too common. An excessive use of the figure is with some speakers an affectation, as when they talk of "the pigskin," meaning the football, or "pasteboard," meaning a playing-card. (Johnson, 154-155)
20. Psal. 51. 10. Renew a right spirit within me: and to the very same purpose see Ezek. 36. 26. Eph. 4. 23. Rom. 12. 2. all which places seem to imply nothing less than a moral change wrought in our souls by the influence of divine grace, whereby we become regenerate or born again. (Norwood, 37)
20. 1 Thess. 5. 19. It is the admonition of St. Paul. not to quench the spirit, spiritum ne extinguite, a similitude borrowed from the fire of the ancient altars, which was continually to be preserved alive; and so here, he must not extinguish the gifts of the spirit, but keep them in constant exercise, such are grace, charity, meekness, &c. See Matt. 25. 8. (Norwood, 37)
22. O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power
|Related Figures||synecdoche, metalepsis, zeugma|
|Notes||From Hart: Metonymies are very numerous in kind, and can occur more frequently perhaps than any other figure of speech. Among the various relations which give rise to Mentonymy are the following: Cause and Effect, Subject and Attribute, Container and thing contained, Sign and thing signified.|
|Last Editor||Daniel Etigson|
|Editorial Notes||added "identity" type of, rm lexographic -ark|