Figure Name metonymy
Source Ad Herennium 4.32.43 ("denominatio"); Quintilian 8.6.23-27; Susenbrotus (1540) 8-9 ("metonymia," "transnominatio"; Wilson (1560) 200 ("Transmutation of a Word"); Fraunce (1588) 1.2-5; Putt. (1589) 191 ("metonimia," "the misnamer"); Day 1599 78 ("metonymia," "transnominatio"); Hoskins 1599 10 ("metonymia"); Silva Rhetoricae (; Ad Herennium (335-337); Garrett Epp (1994) ("denominatio," "metonymy"); JG Smith (1665) ("metonymia"); Gibbons (1767) 89 ("metonymy"); Vinsauf ([c. 1215] 1967) ("metonymy (denominatio)"); Macbeth (1876); Holmes (1806) ("metonymy," "metonymia"); Hart (1874) 164; Bain (1867) 42 ("metonymy"); De Mille (1882); Hill (1883); Du Marsais (1730) ("la metonymie"); Waddy (1889); Blount (1653) 4; Raub (1888) 206; Blackwall (1718); Bullinger (1898) ("metonymy; or, change of noun"); Johnson (1903) ("metonymy"); Norwood (1742) ("metonymy"); Kellog (1880) ("the metonymy"); Vickers (1989) ("metonymy")
Earliest Source None
Synonyms metonimia, hypallage, denominatio, transmutatio, transnominatio, the misnamer, change of noun or name, transmutation of a word, metonymia, metonymie
Etymology from meta, "change" and onoma, "name"
Type Trope
Linguistic Domain Semantic

1. Reference to something or someone by naming one of its attributes; "change of noun or name," "transmutation of a word". (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. Metonymy is the figure which draws from an object closely akin or associated an expression
suggesting the object meant, but not called by its own name. This is accomplished by substituting the name of the greater thing for that of the lesser. (Ad Herennium)

3. Substitution of the name of a related thing for the thing itself. (Garrett Epp)

4. Transnomination, or change of names: a trope whereby the cause is put for the effect, the subject for the adjunct, or contrarily, &c.; Metonymia, Transnominatio, a change of names, or the putting of one name for another; derived from [metonomazo] transnomino, to change one name for another: or from [Gk.], which in composition signifies change, and [onoma] Aeolice pro [onoma] nomen, a name. A Metonymie is a Trope, or a form of speech whereby the orator or speaker puts one thing for another, which by nature are nigh knit together. This change of name is used principally four waies:
* 1. When the cause is put for the effect.
* 2. When the effect is put for the cause.
* 3. When the subject is put for the adjunct.
* 4. When the adjunct is put for the subject.
It is an exchange of a name, when one word comes in lieu of another, not for a similitude, but for other natural affinity and coherence.
(1,) A Metonymie of the Cause, is either when the cause is put for the effect, which is called a Metonymie of the efficient, (Note in marg: Met. Efficientis.) or when the name of the matter is put for the thing made of the same called a Metonymie of the matter.
(1.) A Metonymie of the Efficient (ex 4.1), is when the Efficient cause is put for its effect; or when the name of the Inventor or Author is put for the thing invented, or composed: as, in Farnabies inserted examples, Marte, pro praelio; Mars being the feigned inventor of war.---Lyaeo, pro vino; Lyaeus being one of the names of Bacchus, who was the feigned inventor of making wine; where also the names of Juvenal and famous Livius are put for the books or works, whereof they were Authors.
*#A Metonymie of the Effect, (Note in marg: Meecli.) is when the effect or thing caused, is put for its cause
*# A Metonymie of the Matter, (ex 4.2) (Note in marg: Met materiae.) is when the name of the matter, is put for the thing made of the same.
In like manner also the instrument is put for the effect thereby. (Note in marg: Met. Instrument.)(ex 4.3)
*#A Metonymie of the Effect, (ex 4.4) (Note in marg: Met Essecli.) is when the effect or thing caused, is put for its cause.
*#A Metonymie of the subject,(ex 4.5) (Note in marg: Met. Subjecti.) is when the subject, or that to which any thing belongs is put for the Adjunct, or that which belongs thereunto: And it is made these nine waies, viz.

(1.) When the Subject is put for the Accident inherent
(2.) When the container is put for the thing contained
(3.) When the Place is put for the inhabitants of the same, or for the things it containeth
(4.) When the place is put for the actions properly done in the place.
(5.) When the possessor is put for the thing possessed
(6.) When the seat or place is put for the quality inherent to the same
(7.) When the Advocate or Counsellor, who personates his Client, is put for him whom he personates and represents
(8.) When the time it self is put for the things usually done in time
(9.) When the name of the thing signified, is put for the sign
*4. A Metonymie of the Adjunct, (ex 4.6)(Note in marg: , Adjuncti.) is when the Adjunct, or that which belongs to any thing, is put for the subject, or thing to which it belongs or is adjoyned. This Metonymie is made these 9 waies, viz.

(1.) When the sign is put for the thing signified thereby
(2.) When the quality is put for the person subject thereunto
(3.) When the Adjunct of time is put for the persons, or things subject thereunto
(4.) When the names of the vertues themselves are put for good men; and of the vices, for evill men; and also when the names of divers other things are used for the persons, to whom they are adjoyned, or appertain
(5.) When the thing set in the place, is put for the place it self
(6.) When the thing contained is put for the container, or the Abstract for the Concrete
(7.) When the Antecedent,( Note in marg: Met. An eceden is.) or that which goes before, is put for the consequent, or that which followes
(8.) When the Consequent is put for the Antecedent. (Note in marg: Met. Consequontis.)
(9.) (Note in marg: Met. Connext.) When all things going together, one is put for another.
*#A Metonymie of the End,(ex 4.7) (Note in marg: Met. Finis) is when the end is put for the means conducing to the same.
*#A Metonymie of the form, (ex 4.8) is when the (Note in marg: See the explication of the Termes.) form is put for the thing, (Note in marg: Met. Formae.) to which it gives a being
(JG Smith)

5. "...a trope, in which one name is put for another, for which it may be allowed to stand by reason of some relation or coherence between them. This change of name is principally used in four ways: (1) When the cause is put for the effect. (2) ...when the effect is put for the cause. (3) ...when the subject is put for the adjunct, that is, for some circumstance or appendage belonging to or depending on the subject. (4) ...when the adjunct is put for the subject." (Gibbons)

6. Consider a statement of this kind: The sick man seeks a physician; the grieving man, solace; the poor man, aid. (Note in marg.:(a) abstract for concrete) Expression attains a fuller flowering in this trope: Illness is in need of a physician; grief is in need of solace; poverty is in need of aid. There is a natural charm in this use of the abstract for the concrete, and so in the change of sick man to sickness, grieving man to grief, poor man to poverty. (Note in marg.:(b) cause for effect) What does fear produce? Pallor. What does anger cause? A flush. ... (Note in marg.: (c) instrument for user) Let the comb's action groom the hair after the head has been washed. Let scissors trim away from the hair whatever is excessive, and let a razor give freshness to the face. ... (Note in marg.: (d) material for object) Again, a statement expressed in the following way adds lustre to style: We have robbed their bodies of steel, their coffers of silver, their fingers of gold. The point here is not that zeugma adorns the words with its own figure of speech, but that when I am about to mention something, I withhold its form completely and mention only the material. ... (Note in marg.: (e) container for content) Instead of the thing contained, name that which contains it, choosing the word judiciously whether it be noun or adjective. (Vinsauf)

7. The class of figures now to be considered is Metonymy: a title that comes from two Greek words, which, with Athenian precision, mean "a change of name or noun." That is, metonymy lies always in a noun, never in an adjective or in a verb. (Macbeth)

8. A Metonymy does new names impose, And things by things by near relation shows. (Holmes)

9. Metonymy means a change of name. This is a figure in which the name of one object is put for some other object, the two being so related that the mention of one naturally suggests the other. (Hart)

10. "a thing is named by some accompaniment that is peculiarly forcible or suggestive. Metonymies have been classified according to the nature of the accompaniment singled out. (1.) The Sign, or Symbol, is used for the thing Signified. These signs and circumstances are usually more striking than the main subject; in many instances, however, all that is sough or gained is variety of expression. (2.) The Instrument for the Agent. (3.) The Container for the thing Contained. (4.) An Effect for the Cause…. (5.) An Author for his works…." (Bain)

11. 130. METONYMY.
Metonymy is the substitution for one another of words which indicate chiefly the relations of cause and sign. The following is a summary of the various applications of this figure.
1. Cause and effect.
The cause is put for the effect; as-
"With thunder from her native oak,
She quells the floods below." -CAMPBELL.

2. The sign is used for the thing signified, as, "crown," "sceptre," "throne," etc., for "king:" "red-coats," for "soldiers;" "toga," for "civilians."

3. The container is used for the thing contained; as, "cup," for drink;" a "country," for its "people;" "heaven," for "God."

4. The instrument is put for the agent; as "the sword of the law," for the "magistrate;" "bayonets," for "soldiers."

5, The author is mentioned instead of his works; as-
"Plato says." "We find in Bacon."

6. A thing is presented by some quality appropriate to it:
"The pale realms of shade, where each shall take
His chamber in the silent halls of death." -Bryant. (De Mille)

12. 1. Forms of Metonymy.
Metonymy is the designation of an object by one of its accompaniments. Rhetoricians have divided and subdivided metonymies until the most capacious memory would be taxed to retain them. They are as numerous as the various forms of accompaniment. A three-fold classification will furnish illustrative instances of this figure. Metonymies may be divided into the following classes: (1) the effect is put for the cause of the cause for the effect; (2) the sign is put for the thing signified; and (3) the container is put for the thing contained.
(1) Cause and Effect. - The connection of an effect with a cause is an intuition of the human mind. The effect may be better or less known than the cause, according to the circumstances. Sometimes a complex and obscure cause produces a simple and obvious effect; and, on the other hand, a simple and obvious cause may produce a complex and obscure effect. A proper metonymy uses the better known for the less known, either the cause for the effect, or the effct for the cause. (Hill)

12 (2) The Sign and the Thing Signified. - By association certain signs and symbols become significant of general notions. (Hill)

12. (3) Container and Thing Contained. - An economy of mental processes, but more especially of time and new words, is often secured by putting the container for the contained.(Hill)

13. Le mot de métonymie signifie transposition
ou changement de nom, un nom pour
un autre.
En ce sens cette figure comprend tous les
autres tropes ; car dans tous les tropes, un
mot n' étant pas pris dans le sens qui lui est
propre, il réveille une idée qui pouroit ętre
exprimée par un autre mot. ... Les maitres de l' art restraignent la métonymie
aux usages suivans.
(I) la cause pour l' efet ; par exemple :
vivre de son travail, c' est-ŕ-dire, vivre
de ce qu' on gagne en travaillant. ...
(Ii) l' efet pour la cause ...
(Iii) le contenant pour le contenu : come
quand on dit, il aime la bouteille, c' est-ŕ-dire, il aime le vin. ...
(Iv) le nom du lieu, ou une chose se fait,
se prend pour la chose męme. ...
(V) le signe pour la chose signifiée. ...
(Vi) le nom abstrait pour le concret.
J' explique dans un article exprès
le sens abstrait et le sens concret, j'observerai seulement ici que blancheur est un terme abstrait ; mais quand je dis que ce papier est blanc, blanc est alors un terme concret. ...
(Vii) les parties du corps qui sont regardées
come le siège des passions et des sentimens
intérieurs, se prènent pour les sentimens
męmes : c' est ainsi qu' on dit il a du coeur,
c' est-ŕ-dire, du courage. ...
(Viii) le nom du maitre de la maison se
prend aussi pour la maison qu' il ocupe ...

The word « metonymy » signifies transposition or a change of name, one name for another.
In this sense, this figure comprehends all the other tropes; since in all tropes one word, while not taken in its proper sense, awakens an idea which can be expressed by another word. ... The masters of art restrain metonymy to the following uses:
(I) Cause for effect; for example: live from his work, that is to say, to live on what we earned from our work. ...
(ii) Effect for Cause ...
(iii) The container for the contained: as when we say, “he likes the bottle,” that means “ he likes wine.” ...
(iv) The name of a place where a thing is made is taken for the thing itself ...
(v) the sign for the thing signified ...
(vi) the abstract name for the concrete. I explain in an article the abstract sense and the concrete sense, I will only observe here that “blancheur” (whitener) is an abstract term; but when I say that “this paper is white,” “white” is then a concrete term.
(vii) The parts of the body which are regarded as the seat of passions and interior sentiments, are taken for the sentiments themselves : it is thus that we say « he has heart, » that is to say, courage. ...
(viii) The name of the master of the house is also taken for the house he occupies ...
(Du Marsais [trans. Abbott])

14. Metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is put for some other object, the two being so closely related that the mention of one naturally suggests the other. (Waddy)

15. "METONOMIA is an exchange of a name, when one word comes in lieu of another, not for a similitude, but for other naturall affinity and coherence" (Blount)

16. "Metonymy is a figure in which one object is described by the name of another to which it is related. The figure is based on the contiguity, in either time or space, of the two objects of thought. ...the following [forms] are the most important. a. Cause for effect… b. effect for cause… c. the container for the thing contained… d. the sign for the thing signified…." (Raub)

17. Metonymie is a Trope whereby one Name is put for another, which it may properly stand for by reason of the near Relation or mutual Dependence there is between both. (...)
(1) When the Narration or Counsel stands for the Action, and what the Poet or Historian describes he is said to do; which is a vehement way of Expression, exceeding the common as much as Action goes beyond Description; and Life excels Painting.
(2) When the Name of any Relation is put for the Duty which that Relation requires, and the Benevolence and Tenderness which may be expected from it.
(3) Rivers, which contribute so much to the Plenty and Plesantness of a Countrey, are often mention'd by the Poets to express the whole Countrey in which they arise, or thro' which they take their Course. A Branch of the Metonymie is Antonomasia or exchange of Names, which puts a significant and emphatical Epithet, Title or Character, for the proper and most distinguishing Name. (Blackwall)

18. The Change of one Noun for another Related Noun... Metonymy is a figure by which one name or noun is used instead of another, to which it stands in a certain relation. The change is in the noun, and only in a verb as connected with the action proceeding from it. The following is the complete outline of the figure now to be treated of:-
I. Of the CAUSE.
i. The person acting for the thing done.
ii. The instrument for the thing effected.
iii. The thing or action for the thing produced by it.
iv. The material for the thing made from or of it.
II. Of the EFFECT.
i. The action or effect for the person producing it.
ii. The thing effected for the instrument or organic cause ot it.
iii. The effect for the thing or action causing it.
iv. The thing made for the material from which it is made or produced.
i. The subject receiving for the thing received.
ii. The container for the contents.
iii. The possessor for the thing possessed.
iv. The object for that which pertains or related to it.
v. The thing signified for the sign.
i. The accident for the subject.
ii. The contents for the container.
iii. The time for the things done or existing in it.
iv. The appearance of a thing for its nature; or, the opinion about it for the thing itself.
v. The action or affection for the object of it.
vi. The sign for the thing signified.
vii. The name of a person for the person himself, of the thing. (Bullinger, 544-545)

19. Meton'ymy.—This figure of rhetoric has been defined as an exchange of names between related things. They may be related as cause and effect, as material and article produced from the material, as subject and attribute, or in other ways. (Johnson, 154)

20. METONYMY. Metonymy, of the cause, when the name of the very person serves to express the act, or operation, proceeding from him: thus,
The holy spirit sometimes signifies only regeneration, or a new birth, which is the peculiar efficacy of the third person in the blessed trinity. (Norwood, 37)

21. A metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one thing connected to another by some bond not of likeness or unlikeness is taken to denote that other. (Kellog, 127)

22. Metonymy (or transmutatio), the substitution of one name for another, as
of an author for his work, the sign for the signified. (Vickers 496)


1. The pen is mightier than the sword
(The pen is an attribute of thoughts that are written with a pen; the sword is an attribute of military action) (Silva Rhetoricae)

1, We await word from the crown. (Silva Rhetoricae)

1. I'm told he's gone so far as to giver her a diamond ring (Silva Rhetoricae)

1. The IRS is auditing me? Great. All I need is a couple of suits arriving at my door. (Silve Rhetoricae)

2. "Not so quickly did the Lances get possession of Greece, nor was the Transalpine Pike so easily driven from Italy " (Ad Herennium)

2. " Mars forced you to do that " (Ad Herennium)

2. " Italy cannot be vanquished in warfare nor
Greece in studies " (Ad Herennium)

3. ... doublet and hose ought to show itself courageous to petticoat. (AYL 2.4 qtd. in Garrett Epp)

5. (1) "So we bid a person to read Cicero, that is, Cicero's works." (Gibbons)

5. (2) "Death is called pale, because it makes the countenance pale." (Gibbons)

5. (3) "'He has a good heart,' that is, he has courage, which is supposed to reside in the heart." (Gibbons)

5. (4) "'No age shall be silent in thy praise,' that is, men in no age shall be silent in thy praise." (Gibbons)

4. Metonymie of the Efficient:
Vulcan for fire. Neptune for the sea. Bacchus for wine. Venus so love. Mars for war. Mercurie for eloquence.

So Love is usually put for Liberality, the fruit and effect of love.

My blade is right Sebastian, for of Sebastians making.

He learn'd his Arguments of Aristotle, and his eloquence of Tully; (i. e) out of Aristotles and Tullies works. (JG Smith)

4. Metonymie of the Matter:
I want silver; where by silver, mony is to be understood.

Thus Seed is put for children, and Earth for man.

They eat the finest wheat, and drink the sweetest grapes; by Wheat is understood bread, and by Grapes wine. (JG Smith)

4. (Metonymy of Instrument)
The unlikely have worn the Crown; here the Crown being an instrument of royal dignity, signifies a kingdome.

The sword (being the instrument of slaughter) is put for slaughter.

In like manner the Tongue, for speech; Arms, for war; the hand, for the manuscript, or hand-writing. (JG Smith)

4. Metonymie of the Effect: : Hereby we say, death is pale, 'fear sad, anger hastie, wine bold; by which is signi[...]ed, that death makes pale, &c.

Thus, Love is said to be bountiful, for that it renders one bountiful. (JG Smith)

4. Metonymie of the Subject:
(1)Curii, victory; Curius being the name of a certain victorious Captain.
(2)The Cup, for the wine contained in it.

The Purse, for the money therein, &c. (3)The City met the General; for the Citizens, &c.

It is difficult to overcome Italy by war, or Greece by learning; meaning the Italians and Grecians.

We are to war against Spain, (i. e.) against the Spaniards.
(4)The Hall is done, (i. e.) the Action of that court of judicature.

Thus an Academy or School is put for learning.
(5)Hereby, lands, houses, and ships, are often called by the owners names.

Thus, With me, is usually to be understood at my house.

So we say of some Guardians, They have devoured the Orphans, intimating the orphans patrimony.
(6)Thus the heart is put for wisdome, because wisdome hath its seat there. And sometimes also, the heart is put for courage and fortitude by this Trope. (7)The Cause will go against the Attorny General, intimating against his Client, whom he represents.
(8)The night is frequently put for sleep, and summer for Harvest.

The dayes thought is the nights dream. (9)Mat. 26.26, 28. Bread and wine are said to be Christs body and blood; of which they are only but signes. (JG Smith)

4. Metonymie of the Adjunct:
(1)Thus, weapons and armes signifie war, the keys power, and the palm victory, as being signs of war, power, &c.
(2)Deserts are preferred; (i. e.) men deserving are, &c.

Give room to the Quoise, (i. e.) to the Serjeant.
(3)Thus the night is put for sleep, which is usually taken in the night. Take heed young idlenesse, (i. e.) idle youth.

(4)Thus vertue is put for good men; and justice for a just man.
(5)Thus Books are put for a Library or Study. A play for a play-house.
(6)It is very usual in Scripture to put the Abstract for the Concrete, to set forth the excellency of the person or thing spoken of. Thus in 1 Cor. 1.30. Christ is not called righteous, but righteousnesse.
(7)Thus, to hear, is to obey.

He hath lived, (i e.) he is dead.

They are set (i. e) at supper.

The sword is drawn, whereby is signified the ensuing slaughter.
(8)The Guests are risen, (i. e.) have supped.

He is buried, (i. e.) he is dead.
(9)Thus Hannibal is put for his Army, or any Captain General for the Army under his conduct and command. (JG Smith)

4. Metonymie of the end: Let your courage enterprize greater experiments (i. e.) dangers. He layes honour upon the altar (i. e.) a sacrifice; for that in the old Law none but such as were Priests unto God were admitted to sacrifice unto him, which was a dignity importing honour. (JG Smith)

4. Metonymie of the form: Thus Art is put for an Artificer; pride for a proud man, and covetousness for a covetous man, and the soul for man. Heare you modesty it self, (i. e.) some one very modest. (JG Smith)

When Keats, in his rich "Lines to the Nightingale," cries, in his creamy, mellifluous style -
"O for a breaker full of the warm South!"
"South" stands for the wine mellowed there. (Macbeth)

8. The Inventer is taken for the Invented; as, Mars (War) rages. The Author, for his Works; as, read Horace, i.e. his Writings. The Instrument, for the Cause; as, his Tongue (Eloquence) defends him. The Matter, for the Thing made; as, the Steel (Sword) conquers. The Effect, for the Cause; as, cold Death, i.e. Death, which makes cold. The Subject containing, for the Thing contained; as, the Mace (Magistrate) comes.

9. "When the drunkard loves his bottle" (Hart)

9. "He writes a beautiful hand." (Hart)

9. "I am reading Milton." (Hart)

9. "The pen is the great civilizer." (Hart)

9. "Gray hairs should be respected." (Hart)

9. "There is death in the pot." (Hart)

9. "Man shall live by the sweat of his brow." (Hart)

9. "Cold death." (Hart)

9. "Drowsy night." (Hart)

9. "The kettle boils." (Hart)

9. "He keeps a good table." (Hart)

9. "They smote the city." (Hart)

9. "The House was called to order." (Hart)

9. "He smokes his pipe." (Hart)

9. "At the present day, bayonets think." (Hart)

9. "In water the bullet , in peace the ballot rules." (Hart)

9. "The pen is mightier than the sword." (Hart)

10. "(1.) As the crown or sceptre for royalty; the mitre, the lawn, the altar, the baton, the silk-gown, the purple, the ermine, the ballot-box. Red tape is the routine of office. Peace is signified by sheathing the sword, shutting the temple of Janus. (2.) Cowley says of Cromwell, 'he set up Parliaments by the stroke of his pen, and scattered them with the breath of his mouth,' the intention being to substitute for the hidden operations of the mind, some outward and expressive action. (3.) 'They smote the city.' 'Ye devour widows' houses.' So we say familiarly, the kettle boils. The bottle is a powerful figure for intoxicating drink. 'He keeps a good table.' 'He drank the cup.' (4.) as, the shade for trees. (5.) 'they have Moses and the prophets;' 'a copy of Milton.'" (Bain)

12. (2) Thus "crown," "scepter," and "purple," are indicative of sovereignty, because long associated with it as its external concomitants and representative symbols. (Hill)

12. (3) Thus we speak of the "table," meaning the eatables on it; of the "house," meaning its occupants; of the "camp," meaning its tents and equipage. (Hill)

13(a). (I) la cause pour l' efet: Les paďens regardoient Cérčs come la
déesse qui avoit fait sortir le blé de la terre, et qui avoit apris aux homes la maničre d' en faire du pain : ils croioient que Bacchus étoit le dieu qui avoit trouvé l' usage du vin ; ainsi ils donoient au blé le nom de Cérčs, et au vin le nom de Bacchus. (Du Marsais)

13(a). (I) Cause for effect: ... The pagans regarded Ceres as the goddess who caused the wheat to come out of the ground, and who taught men how to make bread: they believed Bacchus was the god who found the use of wine; and so they gave to wheat the name of Ceres, and to wine the name of Bacchus. (English translation, Abbott)

13(b). (Ii) l' efet pour la cause ... Les počtes disent la pâle mort, les pâles
maladies, la mort et les maladies rendent pâle. (Du Marsais)

13(b). (ii) Effect for Cause: ... The poets say "the pale of death," "the palour of illness," death and sickness make one pale. (English translation, Abbott)

13(c). (Iii) le contenant pour le contenu: come quand on dit, il aime la bouteille, c'est-ŕ-dire, il aime le vin. (Du Marsais)

13(c). (iii) The container for the contained: as when we say, “he likes the bottle,” that means “ he likes wine.” (English translation, Abbott)

13(d). (Iv) le nom du lieu, oů une chose se fait, se prend pour la chose męme: ... c' est une Perse, c' est-ŕ-dire, une toile peinte qui vient de Perse. (Du Marsais)

13(d). (iv) The name of a place where a thing is made is taken for the thing itself: ... “it's a Persian,” that is to say, a painted canvas which comes from Persia. (English translation, Abbott)

13(e). (V) le signe pour la chose signifiée ... l' épée se prend pour la profession militaire ; la robe pour la magistrature, et pour l' état de ceux qui suivent le barreau. (Du Marsais)

13(e). (v) the sign for the thing signified ... “The sword” is taken for the military profession; “the robe” for the magistrate, and for the state of those who follow the bar. (English translation, Abbott)

13(f). (Vi) le nom abstrait pour le concret. ... l' espérance, se dit souvent pour ce
qu' on espčre. ... demande, se dit aussi pour la chose demandée. (Du Marsais)

13(f). (vi) the abstract name for the concrete. ... hopefulness, is often said for that which we hope. ... demand, also is said for the thing which is demanded. (English translation, Abbott)

13(g). (Vii) les parties du corps qui sont regardées come le siège des passions et des sentimens intérieurs, se prènent pour les sentimens mêmes : c' est ainsi qu' on dit il à du coeur ,c'est-à-dire, du courage. ... la langue, qui est le principal organe de la parole, se prend pour la parole.

The parts of the body which are regarded as the seat of passions and interior sentiments, are taken for the sentiments themselves: it is thus that we say "he has heart," that is to say, courage. ... “Tongue” which is the principal organ of speech is taken to mean speech. (Du Marsais [trans. Abbott])

15. "As when the matter is used for that which consists thereof; As I want silver, for rmoney. When the efficient or author is used for the thing made; As my blade is right Sebastian; for, of Sebastians making. The thing containing, for the thing or person contained; as the City met the Generall, for the Citizens. The adjunct, property, or quality, for the subject of it; As, deserts are preferred, for men deserving. Take heed young idleness; for, idle youth. Give room to the quoif, for, the Serjeant; with the like." (Blount)

16. "[a.] We have read Milton and Shakespeare; that is, authors for writings. …[b.] Can gray hairs make folly respectable? That is, gray hairs for age…[c.] The bottle is his worst enemy; that is, pen for literature or the spread of knowledge." (Raub)

17. -- as Jupiter
On Juno smiles, when he impregns the Clouds,
That shed May-Flowers-- (Blackwall)

17. (1) Against bold Turnus the great Trojan Arm,
Amidst their Strokes the Poet gets no harm;
Achilles may in Epic Verse be slain, &c. (Blackwall)

18. John 3:34. -"For God giveth not the Spirit by measure to Him": i.e., the gifts and operations produced by the Spirit. The Holy Spirit is a person, and cannot, therefore, be measured out or given by measure. The "measure" must consequently mean the measure of His power or gifts bestowed. (Bullinger, 546)

19. Thus, when a railway-builder speaks of "laying the iron" (meaning the rails) he uses the figure of metonymy. When soldiers speak of serving with the colors (meaning the, flag, which is carried with the regiment) they use the same figure. And when one says the well is brackish (meaning the water in the well is brackish), it is still the same figure; as also when one says his ale is "drawn from the wood." This figure may be considered a species of metaphor. It is very common—sometimes too common. An excessive use of the figure is with some speakers an affectation, as when they talk of "the pigskin," meaning the football, or "pasteboard," meaning a playing-card. (Johnson, 154-155)

20. Psal. 51. 10. Renew a right spirit within me: and to the very same purpose see Ezek. 36. 26. Eph. 4. 23. Rom. 12. 2. all which places seem to imply nothing less than a moral change wrought in our souls by the influence of divine grace, whereby we become regenerate or born again. (Norwood, 37)

20. 1 Thess. 5. 19. It is the admonition of St. Paul. not to quench the spirit, spiritum ne extinguite, a similitude borrowed from the fire of the ancient altars, which was continually to be preserved alive; and so here, he must not extinguish the gifts of the spirit, but keep them in constant exercise, such are grace, charity, meekness, &c. See Matt. 25. 8. (Norwood, 37)

22. O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power
Dost hold Time's fickle glass, his sickle, hour . . .
--Shakespeare, "Sonnet 126" (Vickers 496)

Kind Of Identity
Part Of
Related Figures synecdoche, metalepsis, zeugma
Notes From Hart: Metonymies are very numerous in kind, and can occur more frequently perhaps than any other figure of speech. Among the various relations which give rise to Mentonymy are the following: Cause and Effect, Subject and Attribute, Container and thing contained, Sign and thing signified.
Confidence Unconfident
Last Editor Daniel Etigson
Confidence Unconfident
Editorial Notes added "identity" type of, rm lexographic -ark
Reviewed No