Figure Name anthypophora
Source Ad Herennium 4.23.33-4.24.34 ("subjectio"); Seneca Sr. Suas. 2.18 ("contradictio"); Melanch. IR C7r ("subiectio"); Peacham (1577) L4v ("hypophora"); Putt. (1589) 214 ("antipophora," "figure of responce"); Day 1599 87 ("anthypophora," "subiectio"); Silva Rhetoricae (;Ad Herennium (311-314); JG Smith (1665) "hypophora"; Peacham 1593; Macbeth (1876) ("question and answer," "responsion," "responding"); De Mille (1882) ("percontatio and expositio," "responsio sibi ipsi," "anthypophora"); Vickers (1989) ("anthypophora")
Earliest Source None
Synonyms antipophora, antiphora, hypophora, subjectio (subiectio), rogatio, contradictio, figure of response, hypophora, question and answer, responsion, responding, percontatio and exposition, responsio sibi ipsi
Etymology L., a. Gr. {alenis}{nu}{theta}{upsilon}{pi}{omicron}{phi}{omicron}{rho}{gaacu}, f. {alenis}{nu}{tau}({giacu} against + {uasper}{pi}{omicron}{phi}{omicron}{rho}{gaacu} allegation. (OED)
Type Chroma
Linguistic Domain Semantic

1. A figure of reasoning in which one asks and then immediately answers one's own questions (or raises and then settles imaginary objections). Reasoning aloud.
Anthypophora sometimes takes the form of asking the audience or one's adversary what can be said on a matter, and thus can involve both anacoenosis and apostrophe. (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. Hypophora occurs when we inquire of our adversaries, or ask ourselves, what the adversaries can say in their favour, or what can be said against us; then we subjoin what ought or ought not to be said—that which will be favourable to us or, by the same token, be prejudicial to the opposition. (Ad Herennium)

3. An objection; it propounds an objection, and is, when the speaker makes answer to his own demand.; Anthypophora signifies a contrary illation or inferenee, and is when an objection is refuted or disproved by the opposition of a contrary sentence; Anthypophora signifies a contrary illation or inferenee, and is when an objection is refuted or disproved by the opposition of a contrary sentence. ([Prolepsis] hath Hypophora and Anthypophora necessarily relerting unto it.) (JG Smith)

4. Hypophora is a forme of speech by which the Orator answereth to his owne demaund. (Peacham)

5. Question and Answer - Responsion or Responding; is an important twofold figure for purposes oratorical. Jesus, whose view was that man's own conscience is man's judgment-throne, was habitually putting question and answer. We continually find a writer introducing a query, which he himself immediately replies to. Nothing can be more natural. (Macbeth)

Sometimes the question and answer are more expanded, in which case they are each set down as a separate figure, the one being caned" percontatio" and the other" expositio."
Percontatio is a consultation with the audience, or seeming inquiry, followed by the statement of one's own feelings.
Expositio is the statement following percontatio. (De Mille)

Another form is sometimes distinguished as "responsio sibi ipsi," or answer to one's own question:
"Is any man fallen into disgrace? Charity doth hold down its head, abashed and out of countenance, partaking of his shame. Is any man dis· appointed of his hopes or endeavors? Charity crieth out, Alas! as if it were itself defeated. Is any man afflicted with pain or sickness? Charity looketh sadly, it sigheth, it groaneth, it fainteth,and languisheth with him. Is any man pinched with hard want? Charity, if it cannot succor, will condole. Doth ill news arrive? Charity doth hear it with an unwilling ear and a sad heart, although not particularly concerned in it." -BARROW. (De Mille)

Objections are often anticipated and answered. This case differs from the preceding one in this, that the speaker does not wait for the objections of this opponent, but brings them forward of his own accord, with the express purpose of replying to them by anticipation. (De Mille)

7. Anthypophora (or rogatio), to ask a question and to answer it oneself. (Vickers 492)


1. "But there are only three hundred of us," you object. Three hundred, yes, but men, but armed, but Spartans, but at Thermoplyae: I have never seen three hundred so numerous.—Seneca (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. " I ask, therefore, from what source has the defendant become so wealthy ? Has an ample patrimony been left to him ? But his father's goods were sold. Has some bequest come to him ? That cannot be urged; on the contrary he has even been disinherited by all his kin. Has he received some award from a civil action, whether in the older or the more recent form of procedure ? Not only is that not the case, but recently he himself lost a huge sum on a wager
at law. Therefore, if, as you all see, he has not grown rich by these means, either he has a gold mine in his home, or he has acquired monies from an illicit source." (Ad Herennium)

2. " Time and time again, men of the jury, have I observed that numerous defendants look for support in some honourable deed which not even their enemies can impeach. My adversary can do no such thing. Will he take refuge in his father's virtue ? On the contrary, you have
taken your oath and condemned him to death. Or
will he turn to his own life ? What life, and wherein lived honourably ? Why, the life that this man has lived before your eyes is known to all of you. Or will he enumerate his kinsmen, by whom you should be moved ? But he has not any. He will produce friends ? But there is no one who does not consider it disgraceful to be called that fellow's friend." (Ad Herennium)

2. "Your enemy, whom you consider to be guilty, you doubtless summoned him to trial ? No, for you slew him while he was yet unconvicted. Did
you respect the laws which forbid this act ? On the contrary, you decided that they did not even exist in the books. When he reminded you of your old friendship, were you moved ? No, you killed him nevertheless, and with even greater eagerness. And then when his children grovelled at your feet, were you moved to pity? No, in your extreme cruelty you 34 even prevented their father's burial." (Ad Herennium)

2. " Now what should I have done when I was surrounded by so great a force of Gauls ? Fight ? But then our advance would have been with a small band. Furthermore, we held a most unfavourable position. Remain in camp ? But we neither had reinforcements to look for, nor the wherewithal to keep alive. Abandon the camp ? But we were blocked. Sacrifice the lives of
the soldiers ? But I thought I had accepted them on the stipulation that so far as possible I should preserve them unharmed for their fatherland and their parents. Reject the enemy's terms ? But the safety of the soldiers has priority over that of the baggage." (Ad Herennium)

3. The chief Priests and the Elders of the people came unto Christ, as he was teaching and said, By what authority dost thou these things? And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do those things: The Baptism of John, whence was it? from heaven, or men? &c. And they reasoned with themselvs, saying, If we shall say from heaven, he will say unto us, Why did ye not then believe him? but if we shall say of men, we fear the people, &c. (Matth. 21.23, 24, 25. qtd in JG Smith)

4. An example of the Prophet Esay: “Whom hast thou defied and blasphemed? against whom hast thou lifted up thy voice, and exalted thy proud lookes? Even against the holy one of Israel.” Esay.37. (Peacham)

4. Another of the Apostle Paul: Shall we continue in sinne, that grace may abound? God forbid. (Peacham)

5. The twofold method of question and answer is ever occurring in the speeches of Mr. Fox, as thus:
"But, sir, the high sheriff was threatened-and how? Was it by threats of assaulting him? No. Was it by holding lip the fear of danger to him by mobs or riots? No. Was it by a menace of taking away his books, breaking the peace of the hustings, and interrupting him in the discharge of his duty?
No, no; but it was by warning him of the consequences of unjust partialities, false or corrupt decisions." (Macbeth)

6. Percontatio.-"What will you say now when the viceroy shakes hands with the populace, and enfeoffs himself to the lowest popularity?"
Expositio.- He should not proceed on the principles of Punic faith or of Parthian flight. To retain the affections of the public on negative terms is difficult; but to attach them by injuries, to annex the delusion of the public to his person, and the plunder of the country to his family, is a monster in the history of ambition."-GRATTAN. (De Mille)

7. What is in that word honour? What is that honour? Air. A trim reckoning! Who hath it? He that died a' Wednesday. Doth he feel it? No. Doth he hear it? No. --Shakespeare,Henry IV,5. 1.131 (Vickers 492)

Kind Of Repetition
Part Of
Related Figures figures of reasoning, aetiologia, apophasis, contrarium, enthymeme, prosapodosis, ratiocinatio, figures of refutation, aporia, anacoenosis, apostrophe, dianoea, prolepsis, figures of anticipation, figures of consultation, proecthesis
Notes "This exornation is an excellent ornament of speech, and verie convenient to garnish eloquution, for that it reteineth ye minde of the hearer in attention, as well with the comelinesse and grace of speech, as with the expectation of the reason and answeres ensuing." (Peacham)
Confidence Unconfident
Last Editor Daniel Etigson
Confidence Unconfident
Editorial Notes
Reviewed No