Figure Name epiphonema
Source Quintilian 8.5.11; Hoskins ("acclamatio"); Peacham (1577) L2v; Day 1599 98; Puttenham "epithonema" [sic]) 3.19 (p.81) ; Silva Rhetoricae (http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Silva.htm); JG Smith (1665) ("epiphonema"); Peacham (1593); Gibbons (1767) 462 ("epiphonema"); Macbeth (1876) ("epiphonema," "oracular summing up"); Holmes (1806) ("epiphonema"); De Mille (1882); Blount (1653) 29 ("acclamation"); Bullinger (1898) ("epiphonema; or, exclamation"); Norwood (1742) ("epiphonema"); Vickers (1989) ("epiphonema")
Earliest Source None
Synonyms acclamatio, acclamation, oracular summing up, exclamation, deinosis
Etymology from Gk. epi, "upon" and phonein, "to speak out"
Type Trope
Linguistic Domain Semantic

Rhetfig: The concluding statement of an argument which both reviews and applauds previous points.

1. An epigrammatic summary which gathers into a pithy sentence what has preceeded. A striking, summarizing reflection. (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. Acclamation; an applause of a thing approved, &c.; Epiphonema, Acclamatio, Acclamation, or a shooting out of the voyce: derived from [epiphoneo] acclamo, to cry out or shoot forth the voice. It is an applause of a thing approved, or a sententious clause of a discourse, and serves for Amplification, when, after a great crime, or desert, exclaimed upon or extolled, it gives a moral note, worthy of credit and observation. (Note in margin: It is a kind of Exclamation.) (JG Smith)

3. Epiphonema is an exclamation of a matter uttered, or approved, conteining the summe and conclusion thereof: And first of a matter uttered. (Peacham)

4. "a pertinent and instructive remark at the end of a discourse or narration." (Gibbons)

5. Epiphonema-oracular summing up, an instructive remark at the end-is abundantly illustrated in Scripture: see Acts xix., 18, 20; Judges ix., 56. From Milton we quote four lines:
"This saw his hapless foes; but stood objured,
And to rebellious fight rallied their powers,
Insensate, hope conceiving from despair;-
In heavenly spirits could such perverseness dwell?" (Macbeth)

6. Epiphonema makes a final clause, When narratives and proofs afford a cause. (Holmes)

Another kind of exclamation is called "epiphonema." This is a grave reflection consequent upon statements that have preceded. (De Mille)

8. "ACCLAMATION is a sententious clause of a discourse, or a report… It is a generall introduction for every man commonly for his pains in reading a History, or other mens Books for some private value of it to himself." (Blount)

9. Addition of Conclusion by way of Exclamation... When the exclamation occurs as an independent separate passage, then it is called Ecphonesis or Exclamatio, and does not come under this division as a mere addition of words; but rather under their application as an expression of feeling. (Bullinger, 480)

10. EPIPHONEMA. Epiphonema is an acclamation containing some very remarkable sentence at the close of our discourse; it is, as it were, the last finishing stroke which we desIre to leave upon the affections of our audience. (Norwood, 78)

11.Epiphonema (or acclamatio), a pithy summing-up of an argument, often in the form of an epigram or sentential. (Vickers 494)


1. "Thus is the haughty miller soundly beat, And thus he's lost his pay for grinding wheat, And paid for the two suppers, let me tell, of Alain and of John, who've tricked him well, His wife is taken, also his daughter sweet; Thus it befalls a miller who's a cheat."
—Chaucer, The Reeve's Tale
The Reeve drives home his story of a cheating Miller by summarizing the tale that he has told in an epiphonema. (Silva Rhetoricae)

3. An example: So weighty a matter it was to set up the Romane nation. (Peacham)

3. Another of the holy Scripture: “So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed.” Act.19.20. (Peacham)

3. Of matters approved, an example of Peter saying thus to his Lord: “Lo, we have forsaken all and followed thee.” Matth.19.2.7. (Peacham)

3. Another: “He hath doen all things well: he hath made both the deafe to heare, and the dumbe to speake.” Mar.7.37. (Peacham)

4. "Virgil, after he has given us a view of the difficulties and dangers of the ancestors of the Romans, makes this reflection, 'So vast the toil to found the Roman state.'" (Gibbons)

5. Carlyle and the great German, Richter, deal much in genuine epiphonemas; as when the latter exclaims:
"Were there no longer any thing inexplicable, I would no longer care to live-either here or hereafter." (Macbeth)

6. Of so great moment was it to raise the English nation. (Holmes)

7. "Ne'er saw I, never felt a calm so deep!
The river glideth at his own sweet will;
Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;
And all that mighty heart is lying still!" -WORDSWORTH (De Mille)

8. "It may be folded up in this Acclamation: 'So little need has he to stoop to privat cares, that thrives upon publick victories; and so small leasure has he to be desirous of riches, that hath been so long passest and satisfied with honor, which is the immortall end of mortal actions.'" (Blount)

9. Judges 5:31. -"So let all thine enemies perish, O LORD."

9. Ps. 14:7. - At the conclusion of the Psalm, this exclamation is added: "Oh, that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion!" etc. (Bullinger, 480)

10. Matt. 6. 21. Our Saviour here endeavours to call off their affections from an excessive pursuit of the world; for if they did engage their thoughts so exceedingly,
they would leave no room for heaven; and then at last, to leave his discourse skill more warm upon their spirits; thus he concludes, for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. (Norwood, 79)

11. This I do vow and this shall ever be:
I will be true despite thy scythe and thee.
--Shakespeare, "Sonnet 123" (Vickers 494)

Kind Of Addition
Part Of
Related Figures figures of summary, anacephalaeosis, accumulatio, maxim, figures of amplification, figures of moderation, exclamation
Notes Not sure if 'type of' is applicable. Possibly 'identity' given that it is a reflection and summary of something?
Confidence Unconfident
Last Editor Zack Mellen
Confidence Unconfident
Editorial Notes
Reviewed No