Figure Name chronographia
Source Silva Rhetoricae (; Peacham (1577) P1v; Putt. (1589) 246 ("cronographia," "the counterfait time") ; JG Smith (1665) ("chronographia"); Peacham (1593); De Mille (1882) ("chronological order"); Hill (1883); Bullinger (1898) ("chronographia; or, description of time")
Earliest Source None
Synonyms cronographia, the counterfeit time, description of time, temporum descriptio, chronological order, temporis descriptio
Etymology from Gk. chronos, "time" and graphein, "to write"
Type Trope
Linguistic Domain Semantic

1. Vivid representation of a certain historical or recurring time (such as a season) to create an illusion of reality. A kind of enargia. (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. A description of times and seasons.; Chronographia, Temporum descriptio, a description of times and seasons: derived from [grapho] scribo, to write or describe; and [chronos] tempus, time or season. Chronographie is a Rhetorical Exornation, whereby the Orator describes any time or season for delectations sake: as the morning, the evening, midnight, the dawning and break of the day, the Sun-rising, the Sun-setting, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, &c.(JG Smith)

3. Cronographia, when the Orator describeth anie time for delectations sake, as the morning, ye evening, midnight, the dawning and breake of the day, the Sunne rising, the Sun setting, the spring of the yeare, Sommer, Autumne, the Winter, the time of war, the time of peace, the old time. (Peacham)

1. Chronological order.
By this is meant the statement of circumstances in the order of their occurrence. (De Mille)

5. 1. Time.
It is important to a narrative that its incidents be related in the chronological order in which they occur. This is usually the philosophical order, for events are not mere isolated links, but form part of an endless chain of antecedents and consequents, each of which is a cause of its consequent, and an effect of its antecedent. (Hill)

6. The Figure is used, when, by the addition of the time, something explanatory is given which helps to the understanding of what is said; or, supplies some important fact; or, implies some extra lesson. All such expressions, as "then" or "at that time," should be noticed; and attention should be directed to the time to see when it was, and why the particular time should have been thus described or referred to. (Bullinger, 473)


1. “Listen, my children and you shall hear
of the midnight ride of Paul Revere.
On the eighteenth of April in seventy-five,
Hardly a man is now alive,
that remembers that famous day and year.”
(Longfellow, “Paul Revere’s Ride”) (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. When break of day had drawn the curtain of heaven. (JG Smith)

3. Examples, the morning: When the bright beames of the East have driven away the darke shadow of the night, and the cheerful birds do welcome the first dawning light with their glad songs, and when men shake off their soft slumbers, and everie living creature receive a new light to seeke their new foode, when the birds forsake their boughes, beasts their night lare, and when blacke cloudes be changed into a golden glorie. (Peacham)

3. The evening: The time when darknesse ariseth in the East, and starres begin to appeare, when labourers forsake the fields, birds betake themselves to their night boughs, and beastes to their harbour, and when the silence of all creatures is encreased through desire of rest. (Peacham)

3. Midnight an example of Virgill: It was night, and all weary creatures tooke their sweet slumber, both woods and raging seas had left their sounds, and starres now sliding in the midst of the night, when every field is husht, both beasts and painted birdes, and water fowle of broad lakes, and such as keepe the wide and wilde country are fast in sleep, when cares were slaked, and harts had forgot their labours. (Peacham)

6. Marr. 11:25, 26. -"At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight." Why is this specially marked by the words "at that time"? Because it was the time when John the Baptist questioned Him (11:2-6); when the people are rebuked for having said that John had a devil, and Christ was a glutton and a drunkard (16-19); when the cities, in which most of His mighty works were done, repented not, and had their "woe" pronounced (20-24). "At that time," Jesus said, "Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight." In other words, He found rest "at that time," in the hour of what man would call disappointment and failure, in the Father's will. And then, He turns to His weary and heavy-laden servants, and invites them to come and find their rest where He found His; and thus to wear His yoke, and find His rest. (Bullinger, 473)

Kind Of
Part Of
Related Figures figures of description, enargia
Notes Is 'type of' applicable?
Confidence Unconfident
Last Editor Ioanna Malton
Confidence Unconfident
Editorial Notes
Reviewed No